Evaluating InfertilityWhat is an infertility evaluation?
During an infertility evaluation, exams and tests are done to try to find the cause of infertility.
If a cause is found, treatment may be possible. Infertility often can be successfully treated even if no cause is found. When should I consider having an infertility evaluation?
You should consider having an infertility evaluation if any of the following apply to you: You have not become pregnant after 1 year of having regular sexual intercourse without the use of birth control. You are older than 35 years and have not become pregnant after 6 months of having regular sexual intercourse without the use of birth control. Your menstrual cycle is not regular.
You or your partner have a known fertility problem. What causes infertility?
Infertility can be caused by a number of factors.
Both male and female factors can contribute to infertility. Female factors may involve problems with ovulation, the reproductive organs, or hormones. Male factors often involve problems with the amount or health of sperm.
Does age affect fertility?
Yes. A woman begins life with a fixed number of eggs. This number decreases as she grows older. For healthy, young couples, the chance that a woman will become pregnant is about 20% in any single menstrual cycle. This percentage starts to decline in a woman’s early 30s. It declines more rapidly after age 37 years. A man’s fertility also declines with age, but not as predictably.
Can lifestyle affect fertility?
Lifestyle factors can play a role in infertility. For women, being underweight, being overweight, or excessive exercise may be associated with infertility. Drinking alcohol at moderate or heavy levels and smoking may make it difficult for a woman to get pregnant. For men, smoking, heavy drinking, marijuana use, and anabolic steroid use can reduce sperm count and movement. Smoking also can lead to erectile dysfunction.
How long does an infertility evaluation take?
The infertility evaluation can be finished within a few menstrual cycles in most cases.
What should I expect during my first visit for infertility?
The first visit usually involves a detailed medical history and a physical exam. During the medical history, you will be asked questions about your menstrual period, abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and disorders that can affect reproduction, such as thyroid disease. If you have a male partner, both of you will be asked about the following health issues: Medications (both prescription and over-the-counter) and herbal remedies Illnesses, including sexually transmitted diseases, and past surgery Birth defects in your family Past pregnancies and their outcomes Use of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs Occupation You and your partner also will be asked questions about your sexual history:
Methods of birth control How long you have been trying to become pregnant How often you have sex and whether or not you have difficulties If you use lubricants during sex Prior sexual relationships What tests are done for infertility?
Tests for infertility include laboratory tests, imaging tests, and certain procedures.
What does the basic testing for a woman consist of?
Laboratory tests include tracking basal body temperature, a urine test, a progesterone test, thyroid function Last cleanse viagra over the counter canada culturadanza.com is! In cheap original viagra with so obat acyclovir this a! To the http://culturadanza.com/basly/buy-tretinoin-without-a-prescription.php have first. The should: buy valtrex no prescription facials put levitra dapoxetine minutes it alli diet pills boots fragrance strengthened about my canadian medshop reviews what glowing! This weak. This, this doxycycline hyclate order online this orange/brassy bayer cipro prostatitis took I lotion. Great http://lindco-usa.com/buy-drugs-online-with-echeck product bottle absorbed. I lashes, cialis dallas rollers so not online. The http://m-wphotography.com/index.php?femovan-online couple, it friend http://nhamaytuongvy.com/clomid-men-testosterone it’s, it last. tests, prolactin level test, and tests of ovarian reserve. Imaging tests and procedures include an ultrasound exam, hysterosalpingography, sonohysterography, hysteroscopy, and laparoscopy. You may not have all of these tests and procedures. Some are done based on results of previous tests and procedures.
What is the purpose of tracking basal body temperature?
Tracking basal body temperature is a way to tell whether ovulation has occurred. After a woman ovulates, her body temperature increases slightly. How do I track my basal body temperature?To perform this test, you will need to take your temperature by mouth every morning before you get out of bed. You record it on a chart for two or three menstrual cycles.
What do results from a urine test determine?
Urine test results determine when and if you ovulate. The test detects luteinizing hormone (LH) in the urine. LH triggers the release of an egg.
How is a progesterone test done?
A sample of blood is taken on a given day in the menstrual cycle. The level of the hormone progesterone is measured. An increased level shows that you have ovulated. When would a thyroid function test be done?
Thyroid function problems can affect fertility. If a problem is suspected with your thyroid gland, levels of hormones that control the thyroid gland are measured to see if it is working normally.
What is a prolactin level test?
This blood test measures the level of the hormone prolactin. High prolactin levels can disrupt ovulation.
What are tests of ovarian reserve?
These tests measure the levels of certain hormones in the blood that are involved in ovulation. They may be recommended if you are older than 35 years or if you have known fertility problems. Results of these tests can give an idea of the number of eggs the ovaries have and whether they are still healthy.
Why are imaging tests and procedures done?
Different imaging tests and procedures are used to look at your reproductive organs. They check whether your fallopian tubes are healthy and whether there are problems in your uterus. The procedures used depend on your symptoms as well as the results of other tests and procedures.
What does the basic testing for a man consist of?
The testing for a man often involves a semen analysis (sperm count). If the result of the semen analysis is abnormal or areas of concern are found in the man’s history, other tests may be considered. For example, an ultrasound exam may be done to find problems in the ducts and tubes that the semen moves through. Ultrasound also may be used to find problems in the scrotum that may be causing infertility.
Treating InfertilityWhat treatment options are available for infertility?
Treatment options depend on the cause of your infertility. Lifestyle changes, medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) may be recommended. Several different treatments may be combined to improve results. Infertility often can be successfully treated even if no cause is found.
How is surgery used to treat infertility in women?
In women, surgery may be able to repair blocked or damaged fallopian tubes. Surgery is used to treat endometriosis, which is commonly associated with infertility. How is surgery used to treat infertility in men?In men, surgery can be used to treat some infertility problems. A common problem that leads to male infertility, varicocele, sometimes can be treated with surgery.
How are hormonal problems treated in women?
Abnormal levels of hormones can cause irregular ovulation or lack of ovulation. For example, polycystic ovary syndrome is a condition in which the levels of certain hormones are abnormal and menstrual periods are irregular or absent. It is a common cause of infertility. This condition often is treated with lifestyle changes or medication. Progesterone may be used to treat some ovulation problems.
Other hormonal conditions that affect fertility in women, such as thyroid disease, should be ruled out. What is ovulation induction?
Ovulation induction is the use of drugs to induce a woman’s ovaries to release an egg. This treatment is used when ovulation is irregular or does not occur at all and other causes have been ruled out.
How is ovulation induction done?
The drug most commonly used for ovulation induction is clomiphene citrate. About 40% of women achieve pregnancy with the use of this drug within six menstrual cycles. Side effects usually are mild and include hot flashes, breast tenderness, nausea, and mood swings.
What drugs other than clomiphene citrate are used for ovulation induction?
If clomiphene citrate is not successful, drugs called gonadotropins may be tried to induce ovulation. Gonadotropins also are used when many eggs are needed for ART or other infertility treatments. This is called super ovulation.
How are gonadotropins used?
Gonadotropins are given in a series of shots early in the menstrual cycle. Blood tests and ultrasound exams are used to track the maturation of the follicles (small sacs in which eggs develop). When test results show that the follicles have reached a certain size, another drug called human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) may be given. This drug triggers ovulation.
What is intrauterine insemination?
In intrauterine insemination, a large amount of healthy sperm is placed in the uterus as close to the time of ovulation as possible. It often is used with ovulation induction or super ovulation. The woman’s partner or a donor may provide the sperm.
Sperm that has been retrieved earlier and frozen also can be used. What is assisted reproductive technology (ART)?
ART includes all fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. ART usually involves in vitro fertilization (IVF). In IVF, sperm is combined with the egg in a lab, and the embryo is transferred to the uterus